Part 1b of a six part series covering the fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging physics. In this primer, Dr. Stafford discusses the course outline and basic physics of precession and excitation. Click here to view Part 1a.
Terms covered in Part 1:
Part 1a of a six part series covering the fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging physics. In this primer, Dr. Stafford discusses the course outline and basic physics of precession and excitation. Click here for Part 1b.
Terms covered in Part 1:
Carotid ultrasound is a valuable tool for measuring and tracking carotid plaque area over time. Dr. Spence outlines how 3D ultrasound methods are used to calculate plaque area, which is an important predictor of stroke, myocardial infarction and death, and to follow plaque progression or regression, which are critical treatment targets. Using this novel approach, Dr. Spence et al. have found that a change in therapeutic strategies, targeting the arteries and not LDL levels, has led to less disease progression in their test population despite a rise in mean patient age.
Exploring the characteristics of vulnerable plaque is pivitol to the understanding of atherosclerosis disease progression. Traditionally, this has been done through histology, allowing for risk categories to be created. Dr. Moody et al., are using MR imaging (and PET imaging through CAIN2) to investigate tissue character, which, when related to histology, may be used to predict future events. It is anticipated that this knowledge could then be used for screening, for future long term trials, and to predict disease progression in the brain.
Atherosclerosis is not a disease that happens in isolation and can often lead to Small Vessel Disease and other serious end organ effects. Dr. Sandra Black discusses in detail many of the consequences of atherosclerosis on brain, including overt stroke, covert strokes and other small vessel pathologies. Through the CAIN program, Dr. Black is using various MR imaging sequences to fully understand these effects.
A great primer in atheroma characterisation and processing, this video is recommended for all cardiac trainees. Dr. Hammond describes the workflow of how tissues become samples, then specimen slides and are digitized. Challenges in processing the endartarectomy specimens are discussed as well as how new technology is overcoming those challenges and making it possible to produce 3D stained specimens for pathological analysis.
Following the mandate of an ancient Chinese medical writing, Dr. Chow describes how it should be the goal of researchers and clinicians to learn to treat disease prior to its clinical presentation. Dr. Chow and his colleagues take aim at this goal by introducing cardiac CT that is able to detect previously undiscovered obstructive coronary disease and its potential as a modality that can identify poor outcome. Taking this further, investigators have asked if poor outcomes can be averted by treating disease before the patient is symptomatic.
The Ottawa Heart Institute is active in the development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for PET imaging of cardiac diseases. Dr. DaSilva describes several tracer development programs at the OHI, together with their targets and development status, particularly those to Angiotensin II. Enhanced visualization of disease targets can then be used to guide therapy in cardiac and renal events.
Using imaging to help unravel the complex relationships between vascular disease and cognitive impairment is the outline for this presentation. Imaging metrics can be quantified and used to identify disease markers, define risk factors and evaluate effectiveness of drug treatments. Vascular complications, correlated to age, are contributing to dementia onset. Research methods and important findings are outlined at each step, helping Dr. Black to give a full picture of the current state of knowledge.
Responding to the impending shut down of reactor facilities and a call for further research, deKemp et al. are exploring alternative agents for PET imaging of the heart that do not rely on Technetium-99m. In finding a suitable alternative, Rubidium-82 has been investigated for its accuracy and binding affinity, its ability to provide a prognosis of future events, and ability to guide effective therapy. Dr. deKemp provides an overview of the work completed to date, together with future directions of this research.